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This is the text of the book I wrote on how to make a small cabletool rig... you can find the complete version at barrios books store at the website All pictures etc are missing from this page.

Above is a picture of commercial type water boring cable tool rig. This manual has been put together to convey a method to the reader; how to make a useable drilling rig. That can be made from secondhand materials, and therefore will not cost a lot of money to make. Please bear with me as I am compiling this manual from memory, as the last time I made one of these drilling rigs was 1985. You can search the Internet but I doubt if you will find anything pertaining to building a cable tool rig, that is because it is a more or less a thing of the past. The rig is suitable to drill alluvial, sands, unconsolidated strata… It will be of very little use in hard rock such as quartz or granite. But a great little rig in sands, gravels mudstones, shale’s sandstones and the like…. You will find it a handy rig for site investigation work… exploratory mineral drilling in unconsolidated strata… and of course for water boring. 1

This machine is something like the one you can make from this manual, The tooling shown is for a larger rig, but is shown to show you how things are set up. There are primarily two types of cable tool drilling methods utilized in the field: Note that right now we are talking about a large cable tool rig in this following chapter, but the methods used with a small rig are much the same. 1. Hard tooling (percussion drilling) is best used below the water table in areas where unsaturated zone soils become consolidated. 2. Drive barrel (dry drilling) techniques are appropriate for relatively dry, unconsolidated soils such as sand and gravel often found in the unsaturated zone (the soil above the water table). On a large commercial cable tool the drilling operation is as follows, just note that the rig these plans are for are to build everything much like its large brother, except that all is made smaller and lighter, I have included the following, so you have an idea of how such a rig is used to drill holes… Cable tool drilling rigs operate by repeatedly lifting and dropping a heavy string of drilling tools attached to a cable into the borehole. The drilling string of a cable tool consists of five components. Consolidated rock is broken or crushed into small fragments and unconsolidated material is loosened by the drill bit or shoe; this part should be always covered with weld hard facing of a strength that can withstand both shock and abrasion …after hard facing grind it to the correct shape which is a chisel form. 2

(1) The drilling stem connects the drill bit to the drilling jars; [see sketch] (2) The drilling jars are used to vibrate the drill bit free of the formation, they act as jarring hammers to hammer back up a stuck tool. (3) The swivel or rope socket connects the remaining drill tools to the cable; and (4) The cable is strung over a pulley on the mast to the drill actuator. Hard tooling is the most common form of cable tool drilling and can be used in any formation. The percussive action of the drill bit crushes the formation. This is accomplished by attaching the cable to an eccentric walking beam. This type of action is used on large rigs; the cam type action is only used on lightweight machines. The continuous up and down motion pulverises the rock you are drilling, this then is turned into a slurry consisting of crushed or loosened particles with water (generally 10 to 20 gallons if no water is present in the formation … this is for large holes 6 inches diameter and larger.) the water forms the slurry at the bottom of the borehole. Periodically, the drilling string is removed and a tool referred to as a sand pump or a bailer removes the slurry. These are two different tools. [See the description and how to make these two tools further in the book] Above we have one idea of a bailer valve, this type tends to stick a lot, and the flap valve type works better under most circumstances. 3 The bailer is normally used in whole containing just slurry made up of the cuttings and water… The bailer consists of a length of pipe of an outside diameter about 1 inch less then the holes diameter. At the bottom is fixed a flap valve… it is lowered down to the bottom of the hole then lifted a few times and dropped, so that the slurry enters the casing and is retained there by the valve flap. It is then brought to the surface where the contents are dumped. 4

The Sand pump is much the same as a bailer, but it contains a piston. The action is you lower the pump to the bottom then with quick jerks you raise the piston a few times this creates a partial vacuum that causes the material to enter the pump and when full the pump is retrieved and the contents dumped…To use a sand pump you need two ropes one to lower the pump to the bottom and one to jerk on the piston with. To empty remove unit from the hole you then put the bottom of the pump in what is called a bucket [see the sketch of this] then you lower the rope end to the ground, having pulled the piston right up before hand, you then lift the pump upside down and using a heavy hammer knock out what is inside the cylinder. 5


As mentioned Bailers and sand pumps are used for removing material from boreholes, in conjunction with churn and percussion drilling operations. Bailers are fairly easy to operate and are satisfactory for bailing water and soft materials from below the water table in cased boreholes if agitation in the bottom of the borehole is permissible. Where agitation must be minimized, a sand pump should be used. Unfortunately, the cost of a sand pump is greater than the cost of a bailer. The diameter of the borehole made by either of these devices is approximately 2.5 to 5.0 cm (1 to 2 in.) greater than the diameter of the apparatus. 7

(1) Sand pump. A sand pump consists of a tube equipped with a plunger 8

or piston located inside the tube. The bottom of the tube is equipped with a flap or valve for retaining material in the pump. The bottom of the tube may also be equipped with a saw tooth bit, especially if the material must be broken prior to its removal from the borehole. To operate, the plunger is moved up and down to create suction. The suction causes the slurry and cuttings at the bottom of the borehole to flow into the tube through openings in the sidewall and the bottom. To empty the cuttings from the tube, the plunger is removed and the pump is inverted or the valve must be removed. (2) Bailer. A bailer consists of a pipe with a valve at its lower end and a bail at its upper end. The bail is used to provide a connection for the cable line on the rig, which is used to operate the bailer. A valve is needed to retain the material in bailer as it is lifted to surface. Two types of bailers are available. (a) Flat valve bailer. The flat valve bailer is equipped with a flat valve, which opens to receive material as the bailer is lowered and closes as the bailer is lifted. To operate, the device is lowered to the bottom of the borehole and then is moved up and down a few inches to create a pumping action. When the bailer is full, it is removed from the borehole and can be turned upside down to empty. Or place the flap valve on a spike that is driven into the ground nearby [see sketch] (b) Dart valve bailer. The dart valve bailer is equipped with a valve, which is shaped like a dart. One end of the valve is a flat plate and the other end is shaped like a cone. To operate, the bailer is dropped to the bottom of the borehole. When the dart strikes the bottom of the boring, the flat plate lifts the cone-shaped valve from its seat and allows slurry to enter the bailer. When the bailer is lifted, the cone-shaped valve drops into its seat to retain the material. To empty the bailer, the dart is touched on the ground, which opens the valve. If valve becomes stuck, the bailer can be turned upside down to empty the material. The drive barrel method utilizes the cable tool rig to drive the drill casing into the soil. The soil is pushed inside of the casing and then collected in a split-spoon sampler or core barrel. In Australia these tools are called an earth socket, or a clay cutter. [See the illustrations] The earth socket is picked up and dropped continuously or it is hammered into the ground using jars. And pulled out of the soil again utilising jars. Jars are like two long links of a heavy chain, one link is made to hammer on the other, To make [depends on hole size] If the hole diameter is about 2 ½” then you need to make the jars long so you can get the weight, the lowest link doesn’t have to be heavy, but must be strong, but the top link must be heavy therefore weigh around 15 kg. See sketch to make. 9

We can repeat ourselves here saying Cable tool drills operate by repeatedly lifting and dropping a heavy string of drilling tools into the borehole. There are five components on a full string of cable tool drilling equipment when using a large rig therefore… a drill bit or shoe, a drill stem, drilling jars, a swivel socket, and a cable. The drill bit transmits the force to the earth. The drill stem is the longest section, and it connects the bit to the drilling jars. The drilling jars are like a pair of links in a chain and are used to jar the drill bit free of the formation. The swivel socket connects the rest of the drill tools to the cable. And the cable is strung up over a pulley on the mast to the drill engine. Casing is often used in unconsolidated formations to keep the walls of the well from collapsing. To take core samples, a tool called split-spoon sampler with a cutting shoe can be added to the drill stem in place of the drill bit. A core catcher is placed at the bottom of the sampler to keep the core from falling out before it is retrieved at the surface. After the sampler is driven into the formation by the cable tool drill, it is removed from the hole and the sampler is split in half lengthwise to extract the core sample. In soft to reasonably hard strata the earth socket can be driven into the ground and a sample retrieved A device called a bailer is used mostly it removes the slurry from the hole before drilling continues. Samples obtained using hard tooling are low in quality because liquids are added and because the cuttings are pulverized; therefore, the samples are not useful for geological analysis. In addition, since water has flushed the sample, identifying contaminants will be difficult. This method is not used to make hole it is used for sampling’s This type of cable tool drilling used is the drive barrel technique, a variation of the earth socket clay cutting method also called dry drilling. This method is much like pile driving in that a drill casing is driven into the soil by the cable tool rig. The soil goes up the inside of the casing and can be collected in a split spoon sampler or core barrel. Sample quality using this technique is far superior to that of the hard tooling method because no water is added to the borehole. If you were carrying out site investigation work, you would be required to do a standard penetration test or SPT for short. For this sort of work you need to buy a split tube sampler, but you can make your own trip hammer [see sketches] The test calls for a hammer of a certain weight falling a certain distance and the sum of blows per 10 certain driven distance tells soil mechanics what the strata can carry in respect to building foundations. When the core barrel is removed, it can be easily contained using plastic sleeves taped over both ends. The core barrel is then knocked with a hammer so that the soil drops into the plastic sleeve. This technique does not use any fluid to soften the formation or remove drill cuttings. It is a completely dry method, The drive barrel technique is best used in relatively dry, unconsolidated soils such as the sands and gravels often found in the unsaturated zone of the formation. Hard tooling must be used below the water table, in areas where unsaturated zone soils become consolidated, or in areas where there are large boulders. Cable percussion (cable tool) drilling is the simplest, most reliable, and economical technology available for drilling water wells. This method will drill any material, but is very slow in hard rock…. It is completely self contained - requires no mud, mud pits, auxiliary pumps or chemicals, yet will drill through most formations. The length of wire cable fitted only limits drilling depth. But economics come into play on really deep holes it is a non-invasive and sensitive drilling method, which is particularly appropriate for smaller water sources, which might be sealed off when using mud flush drilling. The method will allow the discovery, testing and development of a water source, rather than simply finding a potential geology. Cable percussion drilling is appropriate for site investigation, work, prospecting and environmental drilling. It has the same degree of sensitivity as hand excavation, but in much safer and without the hard work. The method is non invasive. It does not cause any modifications to the strata – all it does is simply remove material from the hole. This is similar in effect to the traditional hand digging method, which was used to excavate open wells. It is different from rotary drilling methods using mud flush to remove materials loosened by the drill bit. The pressure of a column of mud extending up to ground level, forces mud into the walls of the hole forming a ‘wall cake’. Mud entering crevices or spaces between grains of sand or gravel will seal off many otherwise useful water horizons. Water pressure in the strata, opposing the mud pressure is very small - perhaps a few inches of pressure head only. This is not enough to push mud out again when the whole has been pumped out. Small sources are often completely sealed off and destroyed by the mud used to drill the hole. At best they are compromised, with reduced yield. The ‘mudding off’ problem is worst when Bentonite muds are used. The issue of sensitivity and the damage to potential water yielding horizons by mud injection is particularly important when they are likely to be small in any case. This is so for water supplies derived from the overburden of tropically weathered basement rocks such as found in most of Africa. A yield of 1000 litres per hour is more than adequate for a water supply based on a hand pump. However, this is less than 4½ US gallons per minute, and would probably go unnoticed, or is destroyed completely, when using rotary mud flush as the drilling method. 11 Samples recovered by a clay cutter or an earth socket, are effectively undisturbed samples - what you see is what you get. Disturbed bulk samples are accurate for the depth, which can be precisely located. Large rigs as described in the last chapter have multiple winches; these have names like Bull, Catline, and Sandline. The rig this book is about need not have a winch at all, but you can include a hand winch if you think fit and a capstan winch is very handy to have. The rig/rigs made like these plans are capable of getting down a good 2 hundred feet… this is real! I can say this because I am a driller of some 40 odd years experience and I know drilling rigs. There is nothing new about rigs of this type, they have been around well over one hundred years…but how this particular one differs from the norm is that its cheap to make and it is light and easy to move. It is a “cable tool” machine; some call it a “churn drill” in the real meaning of the term… with, or without the cable. Made well this machine is operated by one person easily It is capable of driving 2” ID pipe/casing to 200 ft 4” pipe/casing to 50ft… As a cable tool rig it will make an open hole to 100ft that will take 4” casing. The finished rig can be mounted on a single axle as a trailer; that can be towed behind the car. Or it can be mounted on a light truck. The power input needs to be 1 to 2 hp. If you have access to welding equipment and mechanics tools… And blessed with lots of imagination And you have the ability to rummage around wrecking yards, farmyards and scrap metal shops? Then you can make this rig complete for around AU$500.and it will perform every bit as well as a $10,000.00 commercial rig. On purpose I have kept it as simple as possible. There are no electronics, no hydraulics to go wrong… but you can of course utilize it if you wish. Also on purpose [please note this]. …Most measurements of individual parts are not shown, or included in the plans …and parts are not drawn to scale, as this can only confuse the builder, because I the author don’t know what materials you are going to use! Ideally you would fabricate the mast and frame from aluminium, to make it light but strong. Perhaps you have access to scrap aluminium? And more importantly you can weld this metal? But I would assume most builders would fabricate each part from mild steel sections. Then again in the event you live somewhere where light in weight; strong timber is available that is on a par with the timber in Australia referred to as ‘Oregon‘ Then by all means use it where you can. My first machine had a mast and frame of this timber and it served its purpose well. See sketches for the “A” frame mast and below are 2 old pictures that will give you some idea of what a mast might look like As you can see this is a real old timer, the hemp rope is clearly seen and you can see how the mast is laid down to move around As can be seen in this very old picture the mast is a Real “A” frame I have made three of these machines over the last 30 yrs or so, and the best one to use and operate was fabricated where possible from timber… yes from the said Oregon This timber is light and very strong and can flex. A mast that can flex makes cable tool drilling a lot easier on both man and machine. It was a great little rig and most likely it is still used somewhere in NZ… You could unhitch it from the car and manhandle it into a backyard on your own, it weighed all up as a bare rig about 140 kg, was mounted on large diameter light truck wheels that took 7.00 x 20 inch tires [1948 Bedford] this made it easy to maneuver over rough ground, something you will find as a great asset. These days of course timber is more expensive then steel? If you use steel then try to utilize box section type as much as possible, as it is much easier to fabricate parts from then pipe is. angle iron sections are ok ,but I found it tends to make a rig too heavy. Galvanized square and oblong hollow section is ideal 12 13 You should follow good fabrication methods and use truss type sections wherever possible to keep the weight down… I like to refer to this rig as a ‘walking beam‘ type. But it is also referred to a cam-operated rig. Using this form of action makes for very simple design, but note it isn’t a good idea for working very heavy down whole tools, a true walking beam is then much better, but much harder to make.. Basically the rig is a frame of metal or timber, that is really a part of a trailer, to obtain some idea of size think of a the rig about the size of a 10‘x4‘ box trailer… You could build it to go on to a light truck, but you would get very tired getting up and off a trucks tray top… much better to come of the chassis direct, or to have the rig as a stand alone trailer…. To operate you want to be standing on the ground not up on the rig. Imagine you have an axle with two wheels attached, [a normal single axle car trailer] the wheels coming from a vehicle such as a 30cwt Bedford or Morris of pre 1970‘s… these trucks had single wheels that took 6.50 or 7.00 x 20 tires… such a wheel if you can find them are the ideal. But don’t despair if you cannot, as there are many 16-inch wheels around. And these will do just as well… just a bit more effort to push out of a rut! [Try not to use smaller wheels if you are going to maneuver the rig around by hand on rough terrain] These wheels can carry the weight, and being large are easy to move over rough ground, and are not heavy… but??? Of course you need to find them. Car wheels are ok 16” or larger, but don’t use heavy truck wheels remember you are trying to keep it light so that you can take it anywhere. For that reason don’t use tandem axles, as these are hard to maneuvered in confined places. So lets say you have your axle set up? Brakes are entirely up to you? the idea is to keep the rig light. And adding brakes will just increase the weight and costs. The actual frame of the rig needs to be sturdy, it will be about ten feet long about, [Ideally you would fabricate truss sections out of say 1” square tube or even smaller… The best way to do this is to lay out say 2 2”x2” lengths of tube , brace these together temporarily and start one end of this frame and mount your power configuration , whether it be a engine bare or an engine complete with reduction and clutch, you might be able to adapt say a complete motor cycle clutch and gearbox?] 6‘ 6” wide and about seven feet off the ground, this frame is the trailers chassis, and it houses all the rigs components and carries the mast when down and holds it in place when the mast is in the up or raised position. The masts height is up to you? Personally I found best is a height from the ground that allows a ten foot length of pipe/casing to be lifted up. So allowing for foot clamps having an overall height of about 2 feet, plus allows another 3 feet for your lifting gear such as a water swivel or a lifting plug plus the rope connections. So from the bottom of your rope sheave at the mast top, you need a clearance of 15 ft from sheave bottom to ground level. Therefore fabricate you mast accordingly Most likely the mast overall length. Will measure something like 18 ft. To make it more compact [for moving around] you can make a mast that telescopes into itself. Doing this also makes the rig usable in areas where overhead clearance is limited As example this mast we are visualizing stands say 18ft off the ground. But when telescoped it may only be 11ft off the ground and can be used like that, but of course not with 10ft tools. 14 The rig itself is small and you can never lift heavy gear with it, so the mast doesn’t have to be a heavy one. The simplest mast that will telescope is referred to in the drilling industry as an “A” frame don’t know why because it resembles an “H” more then an “A”. See my drawings of an “A” frame mast and fabricate yours in that manner. How strong do you need the mast? About the heaviest weight you will ever have on this small rig will be around 150kg. To lift that the mast can be kept light. The Above sketch is drawn simply to show how the rope is utilized, in real the ropes end is at the mast, not as shown… this is drawn this way, just so you can see how it works. 15 Above this sketch shows where the beam is in relation to the rope and sheaves. 16 This sketch gives a better idea of where the rope has to be it is the dotted line 17 Side view of the drilling rig with a front view of a sheave and a drawing of the Bollard 18 19 Your rig should look something like this when finished Above a sketch of the mast in travel position. If the mast is light enough it can normally be lifted by hand, if not use a winch like one off an old-field bin How to make the walking beam actuator… As said you use what you have. The following is just one way of doing it. [There are many other ways…such as you could fabricate a wheel? or use an existing wheel from some other machine?] Obtain the largest diameter motorcycle wheel you can find, one off a heavy machine [500cc up] is ideal. Make sure it is in usable condition, and check bearings and axle. Replace bearings if needed. Discard tire and tube…. Weld a ¼ inch thick plate to the edge as in the plan on both sides to the rim, large enough to take the 1-¼ inch cam-bearing shaft. [Note here it is very important that 20 21 the cam and the wheel are rigid when used … hence the large diameter of the cam-bearing shaft.] Fit the cam-bearing shaft so that it becomes a part of both plates, you might need to remove one spoke to achieve this…. Before welding make sure the shaft is inline with the wheel… When the cam bearing is fitted it needs to be level or just above the wheels outer circumference so that the walking beam doesn’t foul it. Also make sure that the cam bearing when fitted to the shaft is a good 2 inches away from the wheel. For the cam bearing use a wide ball/roller bearing about 2 or 3 inches wide [you can use 2 the same size that are narrower, use secondhand that still run freely are ok] Do not use a self aligning bearing on its own, but you can use 2 of this type butted up near each other so that the self aligning is cancelled out. Next you need to extend the wheels axle! Do this by extending the axle by using tight fitting pipe or a bush on each side. Piston pins make good extensions… just make sure what ever you use is a tight fit on the original axle so that the wheel turns only on its own axle bearings, and not in the pipe. Just keep in mind you need to be able to dismantle these extensions to replace bearings. The frame to support the wheel needs to be sturdy it can be pipe, angle or box section, when fabricating same, make sure there is sufficient room for the cam-bearing to pass the support without fouling it. …See the plan. The walking beam I suggest you make from a length of 4x4 box section. About 4ft long. [I can be of hardwood timber if suitable reinforced] Working out the pivoting point is best left until you have fitted the cam wheel in place. You could then place the walking beam in position temporally with the cam itself in the 12 o’clock position; place the beam on it so that the beam will fall off when the wheel turns say to 12.30 of the clock. You must work out the distance the beam will travel from its start until it drops back off. From this you work out the length of the beam, which must include the outer peripheral of the sheave root…. Take note that the maximum stroke you need is 18 to 20 inches, remember by having a loose rope the stroke can then be anything you like that is less then the maximum. [Sometimes you need to just tap things, not strike them hard] A good easy way to get it just right is to fabricate the beam then have your pivot point adjustable, to achieve this mount you pivoting hinge on a flat bar 4” wide Attach it to the support but only clamp it to the underside of the beam, then you can move it along the beam until you have it in the right place, then weld it in place. Use a good sturdy bearing for your pivot, making sure the walking beam is rigid and has very little side movement .On the end that contacts the cam, sometimes it is an idea to attach some rubber sheeting to cushion the noise, also when the beam falls off the cam it needs to be cushioned a section of car tire acts very well to absorb the shock. Above sketch gives you one idea of how to make the cam wheel… what ever you use it needs to run true and be rigid but light. 22 Above description of the walking beam Engine… You only need about 1 hp for this machine, so if you used say a 2 hp air-cooled stationery engine and ran it at 1000 rpm you should get all the power you need. A must is some form of clutch, this can be a simple belt tensioner, or a motorbike clutch… but I found the best for this purpose is a centrifugal type! So when you shut the throttle everything stops …just make sure if you use this type you put it in the line where the rpm is the highest, remember it is centrifugal! But use what ever you have. {You could use a motorcycle engine complete with transmission, but you need to install a fan to keep it cool.} Use an engine type that is a lightweight, such as B/S aluminum 2 hp fitted with a 6:1 reduction box. If you have access to this engine configuration you will not need a counter shaft as your output will be 166 rpm from the reduction box and the fastest you want the main wheel to run at is 80 rpm…. Normally you run the rig cam wheel at 60 to 70 rpm. Of the cam wheel. As…60 to 70 strokes per minute. So to make sure you get the required hp you should gear down to get 60 rpm at the cam wheel and 1000 rpm at the engine … 23 24 Therefore your vee pulley at the reduction output shaft will be 2-¾ inch diameter… makes this a “B” section and one made from steel/cast iron…and keep the belt really tight so it will transmit most of the horsepower without too much slipping. [Aluminium pulleys wear out extremely fast with tight belts.] In the event you do not have a reduction box [or a gearbox such as a motorcycle gearbox/clutch assembly]] you can use a lay shaft or counter shaft. Your pulley sizes then are something like. From engine an “A” section vee pulley 3 inches driver to a lay shaft pulley as “A” section 12-inch diameter driven…. From lay-shaft use a 3-¼ “B” section vee pulley driver. The belt then goes to the main wheel [make provision for belt adjustment]…. There are other ways of driving this wheel one being direct drive using a reduction box with a ratio of about 17:1… just remember you need a clutch. To operate this machine safely. In the event you have access to old time flat pulleys then you can use them instead of the forgoing motorcycle wheel. And can utilize a flat belt drive Old discarded machinery on farms etc is great places to get most of what you need to make a drilling rig… I made a rig out of a Header [Combine harvester} that I bought at a clearing sale for 50 cents… it had at least 70% of all I needed, plenty of shafts bearings pulleys etc. SHEAVES You need a number of rope sheaves, the type required are hard to come by and I suggest you just make them or have them made. You can find them on discarded cranes, and machinery like face shovels used in mining, but they are usually very heavy and large…. But on certain headers and bailing machines that used large vee belt drives, then you might find them in pressed steel types that will suit. The driving rope of this machine is best made from Manila hemp or sisal, this type of rope can still be found for sale… Most plastic made rope has too much stretch. But you can always try…best place to talk rope is a ships chandler, or a trucky who uses rope all the time, they can advise on stretch and flexibility… just remember stiff rope is hard to work with. Bare in mind the rope must not stretch much, and must be very flexible … hemp and sisal are stiff when new but soon become ok to use whereas plastic stays much the same. The rope needs to be 1inch to 1 3/8 inch in diameter. Hemp rope of this size is flexible To make your sheaves The root of the sheave needs a diameter of not less then 3-½ inch preferred is not less then 4 inch. The sides of the sheaves need to be tall so that when the rope is loose it stays in the groove, this is important as when working the rope is often loose. See the plans for this…an easy way to make the center is to find a bearing that has an O.D that is a tight fit inside a section of 4-inch pipe, you can slit the pipe and fit the bearing then weld up the pipe again. You then place the bearing on a shaft with the collar fitted then fit the two sides as on the plan and weld them to the center collar this then gives you a sheave that will take the rope and can rotate on the bearing. It is very important that you have no sharp or rough edges anywhere the rope will touch as if so it will quickly fray the rope. This website might help you find hemp rope If you make your own sheaves follow this method for the side plates Use nothing less the 3/8th plate otherwise they will buckle… Make sure the width between both plates is a least ½ inch wider then the width of the rope when it is under load [1 inch diameter rope is most likely 1 3/8ths wide when on a winch drum under load?] Capstan Winch or Cathead You can use this rig without a capstan winch, but having it you will find is very useful. It can take the place of a sandline winch. A Cathead is a smooth round shaft or winch drum of at least 6” in diameter; this should rotate at about 80 to 100 rpm. It needs to be mounted at where the operator stands. It can be driven off the same engine, as normally a cathead is rotating all the time a rig is working to use you wrap two or more turns around the drum then pull the rope tight, the friction between the drum a rope causes the drum to turn the rope thus assisting you to lift heavy object, to stop the lift you just ease off the rope and the rope then just slips on the drum [see sketch] 25 To circulate drilling mud, or water a pump and hoses, a water swivel, and a settling system are required. The two most common types of pumps that are available are the progressive cavity type and the piston type. Both types of pumps can be used for drilling mud or clear water. Pressures ranging from 0 to 4.5 megapascals (MPa) or 0 to 650 pounds per square inch (psi) at flowrates of 0 to 130 cubic decimeters per minute (dm3/min) or 0 to 35 gallons per minute (gpm) such are needed for most geotechnical drilling operations, but unlikely required on a small churn drill, usually for wash boring a self priming centrifugal fire fighting type pump will suffice, noting you only need a pump for wash boring or to clean out a bore when finished. The progressive cavity like a Mono pump is used for most geotechnical operations. It can pump drilling mud in great capacities at low pressures. 26 Above is the system used to backwash a bore screened or not screened, this method is also referred as surging and is used to develop a water bore By forcing water in and out of the aquifer (1) Circulation of drilling fluid. Normal circulation of drilling fluid consists of pumping the drilling fluid into the borehole through the Kelly or water swivel and drill string, around the bit, and upward through the annular space between the drill rods and the walls of the borehole. The velocity is high past the drill bit, which helps to clean the cuttings from the bit. This method works well for smaller diameter borings. However, for larger diameter borings, the return velocity of the drilling fluid is too small to carry the cuttings to the surface. To enhance the carrying capacity of the drilling fluid, two options are available. Betonies clay can be added to the drilling fluid to increase its viscosity. Unfortunately, this procedure is unacceptable for certain operations, such as drilling water wells, because the mud cake cannot be easily washed from the walls of the borehole. There are other commercial products to use in place of clay, these are polymers and you can obtain them from any supplier of drilling supplies.

27 Above is a simple method of washing down casing; while water is flowing the casing is repeatedly picked up a dropped down, turn by hand often helps. The cathead is a capstan winch and is used and rope system is handy for driving casing, lifting and dropping the hammer for the SPT, picking up heavy accessories, and for conducting wash borings. It consists of a cathead, a sheave on the mast, and a manila rope. This system can be used to lift moderately heavy objects at medium lifting rates. Ancillary equipment. A number of small tools and miscellaneous equipment are needed for the drill rig. Driving weights, such as the 63.5 kilogram (kg) or 140 pound (lb) hammer for the SPT test and to drive casing/pipe etc you need a hammer called a ‘monkey‘ see sketch how to make and use, A jarring hammer is also required if you want to remove casing or pipe [see sketch on how to make and use.] 28 Above is a jarring hammer used to pull out pipe, you need to use a clamp as the anvil then knock upwards…Also shown a cheap easy jetting tool for cleaning a screen etc just screw unto the washing rods. The tee openings are blocked up then drill a 1/8th hole in each 29 30 Fishing tools for recovering drilling equipment, which has been lost in the borehole, see sketches for various methods of recovering lost drilling tools from a bore. You need tools for coupling and uncoupling drill strings Stilsons are required, I find 2 pairs of 24” pipe wrenches are essential ,plus 2 pair of 12” stilsons for connecting wash boring pipe., plus the usual tools the best type are Rigid or Hit brand plumbers wrenches are not much good for continuous use. A short piece of casing which can be driven into the ground prior to commencing the drilling operations should also be carried on the drill rig; the casing can be used as a collar to prevent erosion or sloughing at the top of the borehole caused by the action of the drilling Other equipment may include racks for stacking drill rods and samples, a number of small tools such as hand-held hammers, punches, adjustable wrenches, pliers, vyce grips, screwdrivers, files wrenches, and hacksaws and hacksaw blades, [vyce grips are very hand for raising a lowering wash pipe.] Wash boring. The wash boring refers to a process by which the borehole is advanced by a combination of chopping and jetting to break the formation and washing to remove the cuttings. The principal use of the wash boring method is to advance the hole between samples. The cuttings are not acceptable for sampling because of the breakdown of the particles due to the chopping action, the loss of fines during transport of the cuttings to the surface, and segregation of the cuttings in the sump tank. However, an experienced operator may be able to distinguish changes of stratigraphy by the action of the chopping bit as well as by changes of the characteristics of the cuttings. The equipment to advance holes by the wash boring method consists of a string of rods/pipe, which is raised and lowered usually by the cathead in the borehole, and a water pump for jetting and washing the cuttings from the borehole. During drilling operations, the drill string is lowered into the borehole. Drilling fluid is pumped under pressure through the drill rods and bit to the bottom of the hole as the chopping bit is raised and dropped. Each time the rods are dropped, they are rotated either manually by a wrench or lever. The rotation of the drill rods helps to break the material at the bottom of the borehole. It also keeps the threads tight remember always turn the rods in a clockwise rotation when looking down the borehole. The resulting cuttings are carried to the surface by the drilling fluid, which flows in the annulus between the wash pipe and the walls of the casing. Cuttings, which are not removed from the borehole when the circulation of the drilling fluid is stopped, tend to settle and become the upper part of the next sample. The hole can usually be cleaned satisfactorily by raising the drill string slightly and circulating the drilling fluid until it is free of cuttings. Casing may be used, if necessary, to stabilize the walls of the borehole. Above for wash boring one method Above is one type of wash boring bottom tool. Note that the cable tool rig has no rotary features. Churn drilling which is often called cable-tool drilling is accomplished by the up and down hammering or churning action of a chisel-shaped or a cross-shaped drill bit for chopping. The drill stem is itself heavy the drill string is suspended by a cable and tends to act like a plumb bob when it is raised and dropped. A walking beam on the drill rig accomplishes the 31 32 churning action. . The procedures, which are used to advance the borehole, depend on the location of the water table and the type of soil, which is encountered. Above the water table, a small amount of water should be poured into the borehole to form slurry with the cuttings. When the carrying capacity of the slurry is reached, it can be removed by bailing. After the cuttings have been removed, more water is added to the borehole and the procedure is repeated. When drilling below the water table, it is not necessary to add water for the slurry. For clays, a small amount of sand may be placed in the borehole to enhance the cutting action of the bit. For sands, clay may be placed in the borehole to enhance the carrying capacity of the slurry. For unstable soils, casing may be added as the borehole is advanced; in soft or cohesion less soils, bailing inside of the casing can frequently advance the borehole. The diameter of the borehole typically ranges from 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 in.). To obtain a sample, the drill bit and the short-stroke drilling jar are replaced with a hollow steel barrel and long-stroke fishing jar for drive sampling. The long-stroke jars provide a slip joint link in the drill string that allows the top half of the jar and the drill string to be lifted and dropped while the bottom half of the jar and the sampler remain stationary. Holes, which are drilled and sampled, tend to be vertical because of the plumb bob action of the drill string. Driving Pipe or casing… This rig is ideal for driving small bore pipe [2” ID] for sand points or piezometer bores and the like. First it must be understood that normal Galvanized water pipe is of no use except in very loose sands, simply because when manufactured this pipe has a seam running its full length which is not welded and when this pipe is hammered the seam will open up… So when using pipe use seamless or what is often called steam pipe. Ordinary BSP or NPT pipe thread is a taper thread, designed so that it gets progressively tighter as the thread is done up, this is to stop water leaking, but this taper is no use when the pipe is used as casing, the thread type is ok but it has to be cut as what is referred to as a parallel thread meaning the same all along its length… by special order you can get pipe thread dies made that way [try Brown Bros Christchurch NZ] or you can do what I use to do and that is thread on a pipe die back wards go over the taper thread and turn so that the die cuts the last few threads as the first. The other method is to weld the pipe as you proceed; welding is ok providing you are a good welder? An alternative is to approach a diamond drilling company and see if they want to sell worn out wire line drill rods, they usually do. Ask for “N” or “H” rods and a few “B” or “A” rods would be handy as wash rods. If you weld these wire line rods use a welding rod such as CIG “Weld all” because the steel is special and ordinary mild steel rods will cause the weld to break. The best method to start off a driven pipe project is to make a short hole about 2ft deep with a earth socket, then place the first pipe in the made hole and using a spirit level get the pipe vertical and then ram the earth around it as if you were inserting a fence post. At the bottom of your first pipe you need a cutting shoe or a point… If you are driving in sandstones, mudstones, shale’s, and anything like that you are best with a open pipe and a casing shoe, this shoe should be firmly fixed to the pipe and have hard facing attached that can take shock loads. Grind the outer edge to a chisel shape and have the shoe about a ¼ inch larger OD then the pipe. At the top fit the monkey anvil and keep it tight… commence to drive the pipe down a give the pipe a full turn every foot you drive… When you have driven to about 2 feet or if the pipe stops going down lower down your wash pipe and commence an up and down movement until you think you have washed out all the cuttings inside the pipe, then repeat the actions until the first pipe is in the ground then screw on or weld the next pipe and continue…. Note if you take time to keep the first pipe vertical then the rest will follow it. If your strata is unconsolidated like sands, gravels loose silts muds etc then you place in the bottom of your pipe a metal point that takes the place of the shoe, have the point a good fit inside the pipe for about 3 inches [see sketches] how to make, you can buy these point made from cast iron in Christchurch NZ … when you have reached the desired depth you put down the wash rods a knock the plug out say about 10 inches so that there is a void beneath the pipe. Then develop the well. If you are using a well point [see pics] then this stays as part of the pipe. Just remember that commercial well points are not made to go through hard strata and will buckle up. The above gives you some idea of what well points are The illustration on the right shows what a “Knockout point looks like 33 Above are the different drive caps when using a monkey The middle one is best for pipe you are going to weld, you need to weld on the side a couple of grub screws to hold the cap onto the pipe because the monkeys tail can catch a drag it up with itself. This illustration on the right shows a good example of using a point except with pipe there is no screen. The driving bar is your wash rod used when you have reached the depth you want. 34 Above Sketch of a well point 35 More wellpionts Here is an illustration showing how to couple pipe On the left is shown what happens if you couple using tapered water pipe threadsOn the right is the correct method so that both pipes butt and the drive force is transmitted not to the socket but to the other pipe. 36 Above is a sketch of a driving hammer To make. Obtain a 6” pipe 3 feet long. Weld a 3/8th circular steel plate to one end securely, melt down some lead from old batteries, place in the pipe a layer of old scrap bolts nuts and the like about 6 inches in depth and pour melted lead onto these to cover then place more scrap cast or steel 37 38 and cover again . repeat this until the pipe weighs about 50 kg then weld securely on the top another 3.8th or ½ inch plate to which you have securely attach an eye of at least ½ diameter A ¾ inch “U” shackle with the bolt hole cut off makes a good eye, Make the tail from a length of 1 inch steam pipe or solid shafting about 30 inches long weld this securely to the center of a circular plate about 5/8th or ¾ thickness so it is solid… making sure it is center and true to the plate, then weld this plate to the bottom of the hammer … about 5 stitch welds around should be enough. Do not weld right around because the tail wears out and you need to remove it and replace after a length of time. You now have your monkey or drop hammer to use lift it up and thread the tail down the pipe to be driven, having first placed a driving cap or anvil on the pipe After awhile you will get use to how to use, you control the length of the blow by having the rope having a certain amount of slack.. Each blow will drive the pipe away from the hammer so you have to keep paying out some rope to compensate. Some notes on the type of strata you will be drilling into. Rock is composed of grains of various minerals and among the microscopic properties are mineral composition, grain size and the form and distribution of the grains. A correct appraisal of the type of rock and its properties - such as hardness, abrasiveness, compressive strength and density—must be made in order to judge the penetration rate, hole quality, and tool wear when drilling starts. Quartz is a very hard material and causes heavy wear, particularly on drill bits. Conversely, rock with a high calcite content is easy to drill and causes only low wear on the bits. A coarse-grained structure is easier to drill and causes less wear than a fine-grained structure. Consequently, rocks with essentially the same mineral content may be quite different in terms of drillability. Rocks can be classified on the basis of their structure. If the mineral grains are mixed in a homogeneous mass, the rock is massive—for example, granite. In mixed rocks, the grains are arranged in layers. A slaty rock also has the minerals arranged in different layers, but they have been compacted in plates by pressure and heat. Visible properties 39 Among the properties visible to the naked eye are slatiness, fissuring, contact zones, layering, veining and inclinations - factors which are often of great significance when drilling. For example, cracks or inclined and layered formations can cause hole deviation and sometimes result in tools getting stuck. It is difficult to achieve good hole quality when working in soft rock, as the walls often cave in . Rocks are classified into three main groups, based on their origin and the way in which they were formed: • Igneous or magmatic rocks, formed from solidified lava or magma • Sedimentary rocks, formed by the depositing of broken material or by chemical precipitation. - Metamorphic rocks, formed by the transformation of igneous or sedimentary rocks - in most cases by an increase in pressure and heat. Unconsolidated strata Drilling in sand is possible by driving pipe with or without a point, If you find the sand heaves into the open pipe and continues to enter the pipe as fast as you empty it out, then it is best you use a plug at the bottom and knock it out when you have reached the required depth. It is best to use a point if you are going through clays, sands, gravels, cobblestones and the like. But use a shoe in other formations , very often you will find that by chopping up what is in the casing with a stem and bit or a wash down tool you can penetrate below the casing and so make it easier to drive it further on. The following is useful information relating to soil types and terrain in general, it has been included because it could be helpful Above shows how water moves in alluvial 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Here is a bit more information on well points and their use. I have included some notes of another author on well screening 52 53 54 55 56 57 Here are a few notes on airlifting in boreholes 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Here are a few pictures of bits and tools used on these rigs. 66 67 68 All are cable tool type bits. 69 70 71 72 From top to bottom Spudding bar. Drilling stem Set of jars. Collar rod for weight. 73 74 75 Above is a sketch of an earth socket…. The wedge is driven into the slot above the compacted soil and then hammered downwards to push out the collected material. When making a stem or the drilling bar, remember to make it out of 2” solid bare for a hole that will take 2” pipe and 4” solid shaft for a 4” cased hole, make stems to go down 2” pipe and 4” pipe. Heat up the bar to white hot on the end and forge it to a shape much like a cold chisel is shaped, take your time to get it roughly to the right diameter and shape. Allow for the fact that you will need to coat it with hard facing that can stand both shock and abrasion. The actual cutting edge grind on a profile so that the actual edge is a rounded flat about 1/16th “ wide, you must not have a knife edge, more like the back of the knife edge… remember the bit does not cut the rock, it crushes it. Have the shaft to cutting edge tapered so that it cannot get caught coming up on the shoe of any casing or on a rock shelve … in all cases make the chisel diameter about ½ “ larger then the diameter of any casing shoe you are using…. For stems inside casing make diameter about ½ “ smaller the ID of the casing. Up at the top of the stem have a swivel joint so that the stem can rotate and above this a set of jars so you can hammer out a stuck stem. This is sort of the view from overhead of a rig…Lay your 2 main chassis rails out on level floor brace same…. then start with you engine configuration and ad each component until you have completed everything, then remove any chassis rail that is not required… you can then build the frame around the completed unit and ad the mast etc: How to use your drilling rig. Driving a 2” ID pipe for a peozometer bore. Set up. Move the rig to the required drilling spot. Set it up so that it is level, Raise the mast and secure it to the frame, now use a spirit level to get the mast vertical. Next feed the rope through the sequence of pulleys. Tie the end that is coming out of the Bull sheave to the tool you are going to use This will be the earth socket, so lean this tool against the rig and tie the rope to it using the special knot the bowline The Bowline Knot is one of the most used loop knots. This variant is most used in the world. Probably due to its simplicity, security, and its relationship with the Sheet bend. Keep the cross point in step A between a finger and thumb and make a clock-wise turn with your wrist. Without the loop in between, it is the same knot. . There is a rule of thumb which states that the loose end should be as long as 12 times the circumference for the sake of safety. The Bowline ”Lay the bight to make a hole Then under the back and around the pole Over the top and thru the eye Cinch it tight and let it lie” Always use a knot that you can untie. Tighten the rope and lift the tool up until it is just off the ground. Wrap the rope around the bollard in a figure of eight action… Not here you must always have the rope in your hands when working the rig. Now adjust the walking beam to rope slackness so that when the beam falls off the cam the earth socket bit it just off the ground, Start your engine a let the clutch out and the socket should be rise a fall and getting stopped just before it touches the ground. Now with one hand steady the socket and with the other pay hand out a little rope. The socket is now biting the ground, slowly feed it in, letting more rope go and at the same time twist the socket back and forth as it comes up, when you have made a hole about two feet deep. 1


Remove the earth socket, after emptying out the contents, to do this hammer the socket and if the soil stays put drive in the wedge then hammer the wedge down to knock the soil out. Next stand a length of pipe in the hole and back fill like you were putting a fence post in the ground… tamp it tightly. Don’t forget the shoe or the point which ever you are using. Make sure it is vertical. Fit the driving hammer anvil to the top of the pipe a secure it. Then tie your bull line rope to the monkey and hoist it up and thread the tail through the anvil, lower the hammer so it is just resting on the pipe, adjust the rope and beam so that the hammer is just off the anvil when the beam is off the cam. Engage the clutch and again holding the pipe, start the hammer up and down and at first just keep tapping the anvil, as the pipe goes down turn it about one revolution per 6 inches. It is of utmost importance to start the pipe off plumb…. Remember if the first pipe is vertical the rest will follow. Depending on the ground type you will find some water helps, once the pipe has become firm you can increase the stroke, you will soon get use to the action. Try to hit the anvil with a solid thump, but be careful of too much rope slack as the monkey will sway all over the place causing the pipe to get off vertical. If the penetration rate slows right up with a point on it means the ground is too hard for that method. And you should retrieve the pipe or abandon the bore and start again. If it slows up with a shoe on, then lower down a wash rod with a chopping bit attached. When doing this always knows how much pipe you have in the ground to the nearest inch. And mark off your washing rod so you know how much material there is in the pipe. Next with your pump going wash the rods down the pipe use a jerking action on the wash rods and feed them down until the washing bit it at the bottom, if you are using a water swivel then keep turning the rods clockwise in the pipe, if now swivel then use a back a forth motion. Achieve the up and down action by the catline or in shallow work just heave on the rope you. Once the casing is clear you continue with the monkey. If you get to a stage whereby the pipe starts to bounce, then the strata is just too hard for this form of drilling. But so long as there is continuing headway then there is progress. Don’t despair if you are only managing 2 ft per hour, that’s ok in really tight ground. In such ground keep the pipe well filled with water. But assuming all is well and you have you first pipe its full length in the ground, 3

Clean it out then attach the next length, if threaded make sure it is done up really tight, If you weld then make sure the new pipe is true to the one in the ground. And weld securely; make sure you are using a rod compatable with the steel in the pipe. Because this is a bore to check out a water table you must clean and check the pipe at frequent intervals. Let us say the water table is at 30 ft, so we drive the pipe to 40 ft then clean it out. Next try to fill the pipe with water? If it fills right up then the shoe is in impervious strata, so go down a wash bore about 2 feet out of the shoe, Retrieve the wash rods and try filling again with water if you cannot fill then all is well, but if you can fill it up then you need to jar up the pipe until you have the end or shoe in a pervious material. That is all there is to a peozometer bore. You may have to cut off the casing if you had to jar it back up to a suitable height And perhaps concrete a pad up the top TO Put Down a well Point. One puts down well points or water spears in areas where it is pretty certain there are loses sands gravels. So in large gravels you can use pipe with a point at the end, and knock it out when you have got to the required depth. In sand and grits you can use the former but it is better to use a well point. As it has a screen to keep most of the sand out. To put the well down you can use the earth socket to make hole until the hole starts to collapse then just drive the pipe as before If you have a knock out point on then usually the penetration gets easier when you are in a water aquifer, always go into this at least 5 ft before knocking out the plug. With a well point on you can tell when you are in water by cleaning out the pipe and checking the water level. In both cases if there is water in the pipe, then attach a pump, and pump water down the hole, if it pumps down easily then it will be easy to pump water out. Caution here only pump good water down a waterbore, to avoid contamination. You can check static water levels etc. With small bores pumping water down a bore is as good a way to develop a bore as any other way. Site Investigation bores If you are going to do any of this type of drilling then you need to read up on the differing tests. 4

You would need an automatic drop hammer for the Standard penetration test and a special split tube barrel this hammer has a stroke of 30 inches and you drive the barrel one foot into what you are testing then count the blows it takes to drive it another 6 inches. The earth socket is used for this type of work…you drive say 4” casing and use a drilling stem to make hole and a bailer and a sandpump Larger bores Bores to take 6 or 8 inch casing can be drilled with this machine. But only in soft ground as the tool weight is limited. A good way to drill larger bores with small rigs is to telescope your way down, starting with as large as possible. Pipe or casing. THE ART OF DRILLING WITH A STEM Cabletool drilling is an art of its own… at first you may find it difficult. Lower the bit to the bottom, let the beam pick it up while you are holding the rope You will feel the rope to slacken, adjust the rope so the is slack but only just and every time it starts to tighten let a little more rope go…. Simple as that.

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